Formica Linnaeus, 1758 valid feminine
Formica Linnaeus, 1758: 579 Type-species: Formica rufa, by subsequent designation of Curtis, 1839: 752.
Junior synonyms
Obsolete classifications
Genus Formica references

Mayr, 1855: 300 (diagnosis, Austria species key); Smith, 1858a: 1 (diagnosis); Mayr, 1861: 46 (Europe species key); Roger, 1863b: 12 (catalogue); Mayr, 1863a: 410 (catalogue); Mayr, 1865: 8 (diagnosis); Forel, 1874: 51 (Switzerland species key); Forel, 1878c: 373 (diagnosis); André, 1882c: 176 (Europe & Algeria species key); Cresson, 1887: 255 (U.S.A. catalogue); Provancher, 1887: 232 (Canada species key); Nasonov, 1889: 61 (Russia species key); Dalla Torre, 1893: 192 (catalogue); Emery, 1893k: 643 (North America species key); Forel, 1894c: 402 (India species key); Bingham, 1903: 334 (India species key); Ruzsky, 1905b: 318 (Russian Empire species key); Wasmann, 1906: 8 (Luxemburg species key); Emery, 1909b: 180 (Palaearctic species key); Bondroit, 1910: 482 (Belgium species key); Wheeler, 1913i: 387 (subgenera, species groups, all species keys); Stitz, 1914: 88 (Central Europe species key); Donisthorpe, 1915f: 244 (Britain species key); Emery, 1916a: 257 (Italy species key); Wheeler, 1916r: 594 (U.S.A., Connecticut species key); Bondroit, 1917a: 174 (France Formica rufa group, key); Bondroit, 1918: 41 (France & Belgium species key); Wheeler, 1922: 699 (subgenera key); Emery, 1925d: 241 (diagnosis, subgenera key, catalogue); Emery, 1925d: 244 Formica (Neoformica) diagnosis, catalogue; Emery, 1925d: 245 Formica (Serviformica) diagnosis, catalogue; Emery, 1925d: 251 Formica (Formica) diagnosis, catalogue; Emery, 1925d: 258 Formica (Raptiformica) diagnosis, catalogue; Lomnicki, 1925a: 171 (Poland species key); Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1926c: 93 (Turkestan species key); Karavaiev, 1927d: 282 (Ukraine species key); Donisthorpe, 1927c: 284 (Britain species key); Arnol'di, 1933a: 603 (Russia species key); Karavaiev, 1936: 220 (Ukraine species key); Menozzi, 1939a: 321 (Himalaya & Tibet species key); Stitz, 1939: 306 (Germany species key); Creighton, 1940a: 1 (North America Formica rufa subspecies key); Kratochvíl, 1941b: 103 (Central Europe species key); Novák & Sadil, 1941: 103 (Central Europe species key); Cole, 1942: 375 (U.S.A., Utah species key); Holgersen, 1943c: 175 (Norway species key); Holgersen, 1944a: 200 (Norway species key); Buren, 1944a: 299 (U.S.A., Iowa species key); Van Boven, 1947b: 187 (Belgium species key); Creighton, 1950a: 456 (North America species key); Chapman & Capco, 1951: 197 (Asia checklist); Yarrow, 1954a: 229 (Britain Formica fusca group); Yarrow, 1955a: 29 (Britain Formica rufa group, key); Wilson & Brown, 1955: 108 (Formica sanguinea & Formica neogagates groups, synopsis); Boven, 1959: 12 (Netherlands species key); Betrem, 1960b: 75 (Formica rufa group, key); Gregg, 1963: 498 (U.S.A., Colorado species key); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1963: 205 (U.S.A., North Dakota species key); Cotti, 1963: 1 (Formica rufa group, bibliography 1930-61); Dlussky, 1964: 1026 (former U.S.S.R. Formica (Coptoformica) species key); Collingwood, 1964b: 109 (Britain species key); Brown, 1965d: 181 (Formica integra subgroup); Dlussky, 1965a: 15 (Mongolia and Tibet species key); Dlussky, 1967a: 39 (Palaearctic species key); Dlussky, 1967b: 80 (*Baltic Amber species key); Bernard, 1967a: 285 (diagnosis, Western Europe species key); Buren, 1968a: 36 (Nearctic Formica sanguinea group species key); Boven, 1970b: 34 (Netherlands species key); Dlussky & Pisarski, 1971: 145 (Poland species key); Francoeur, 1973: 272 (Nearctic Formica fusca group, revision, key); Bolton & Collingwood, 1975: 6 (Britain species key); Tarbinsky, 1976: 177 (Kyrghyzstan species key); Van Boven, 1977: 94 (Belgium species key); Kutter, 1977c: 236 (Switzerland species key); Arnol'di & Dlussky, 1978: 552 (former European U.S.S.R. species key); Collingwood, 1978: 93 (Iberian Peninsula species key); Collingwood, 1979: 112 (Fennoscandia & Denmark species key); Smith, 1979: 1448 (North America catalogue); Douwes, 1979: 187 (Formica rufa group systematics); Kupyanskaya, 1980: 95 (Far Eastern Russia species key); Allred, 1982: 446 (U.S.A., Utah species key); Kupyanskaya, 1984: 103 (Far Eastern Russia Formica truncorum complex, key); Snelling & Buren, 1985: 71 (Nearctic Formica sanguinea group, key); Gösswald, 1985: 274 (Germany species key); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1986g: 76 (U.S.A., Nevada species key); Nilsson & Douwes, 1987: 74 (Norway species key); Agosti & Collingwood, 1987b: 285 (Balkans species key); Gösswald, 1989: 49 (Formica rufa group taxonomy); Agosti & Bolton, 1990b: 149 (characters); Wu, 1990: 4 (China species key); Dlussky et al., 1990: 138 (Turkmenistan species key); Kupyanskaya, 1990a: 174 (Far Eastern Russia species key); Morisita et al., 1991: 31 (Japan species key); Atanassov & Dlussky, 1992: 255 (Bulgaria species key); Agosti, 1994b: 106 (diagnosis, review of genus); Radchenko, 1994b: 112 (South Siberia species key); Arakelian, 1994: 89 (Armenia species key); Bolton, 1994: 50 (synoptic classification); Bolton, 1995a: 1049 (census); Bolton, 1995b: 190 (catalogue); Douwes, 1995: 94 (Sweden species key); Kupyanskaya, 1995: 353 (Far Eastern Russia species key); Wu & Wang, 1995a: 138 (China species key); Seifert, 1996b: 201 (Central Europe species key); Skinner & Allen, 1996: 41 (Britain species key); Collingwood & Prince, 1998: 25 (Portugal species key); Tinaut & Martínez-Ibañez, 1998d: 36 (Iberian Peninsula Formica rufa, Formica sanguinea & Formica exsecta groups, key); Seifert, 2000a: 563 (Palaearctic Formica (Coptoformica) species key); Czechowski et al., 2002: 148 (Poland species key); Chang & He, 2002a: 51 (northwest China species key); Seifert, 2002: 267 (Formica cinerea group revision key); Mackay & Mackay, 2002: 277 (U.S.A., New Mexico species key); Bolton, 2003: 127 (synopsis); Radchenko, 2005b: 188 (North Korea species key); Seifert, 2007: 176 (North and Central Europe species key); Trager et al., 2007: 627 (Formica pallidefulva group key); Dlussky, 2008a: 57 (Europe Eocene amber species key); Terayama, 2009: 224 (Taiwan species key); Seifert & Schultz, 2009b: 258 (Formica rufibarbis group key); Czechowski et al., 2012: 371 (Poland species key); Dlussky & Putyatina, 2014: 254 (Croatian Miocene species, revision); Dlussky et al., 2015 (diagnosis for fossil imprints); Cantone, 2017: 156 (brief male diagnosis); Romiguier et al., 2018: 40 (Palearctic species phylogenomics); Richter et al., 2020: 133 (cranial anatomy)

Citations

Extant: 178 valid species, 22 valid subspecies

Fossil: 56 valid species, 2 valid subspecies

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