Formica rufa Linnaeus, 1761 valid
Formica rufa Linnaeus, 1761: 426 (q.m.) SWEDEN. Palearctic.
  • [Note: not Linnaeus, 1758: 580 (w.); discussion in Yarrow, 1954c: 313; Yarrow, 1955a: 5.].
  • Combination in Formicina: Shuckard, in Swainson & Shuckard, 1840: 172.
  • Latreille, 1798: 37 (w.q.m.); Latreille, 1802a: 143 (w.q.m.); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1953c: 166 (l.); Richter et al., 2020: 133 (w.).
  • Status as species: Scopoli, 1763: 313; Linnaeus, 1767: 962; Fabricius, 1775: 391; Fabricius, 1782: 489; Retzius, 1783: 74; Geoffroy, in Fourcroy, 1785: 452; Fabricius, 1787: 308; Razoumowsky, 1789: 223; Gmelin, 1790: 2798; Christ, 1791: 510; Olivier, 1792: 492; Fabricius, 1793: 351; Latreille, 1798: 37; Latreille, 1802a: 143; Walckenaer, 1802: 160; Fabricius, 1804: 398; Jurine, 1807: 272; Gravenhorst, 1807: 286; Latreille, 1809: 126; Latreille, 1817a: 98; Lamarck, 1817: 95; Stephens, 1829b: 357; Brullé, 1833: 327; Losana, 1834: 318; Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, 1835: 201; Zetterstedt, 1838: 448; Schilling, 1839: 54; Guérin-Méneville, 1844a: 421; Nylander, 1846a: 902; Nylander, 1846b: 1047; Foerster, 1850a: 13; Smith, 1851: 1; Schenck, 1852: 23; Mayr, 1855: 328 (redescription); Smith, 1855a: 100; Nylander, 1856b: 60; Gredler, 1858: 6; Smith, 1858a: 2, 51; Duméril, 1860: 931; Mayr, 1861: 46 (in key); Meinert, 1861: 311; Mayr, 1863a: 420; Roger, 1863b: 12; Cresson, 1865b: 426; Smith, 1871c: 1; Dours, 1873: 165; Forel, 1874: 52 (in key); André, 1874b: 184 (in key); Emery, 1878a: ix (in list); Emery, 1878: 48; Emery & Forel, 1879: 450; Saunders, 1880: 204; Provancher, 1881b: 357; André, 1882c: 184 (in key); Provancher, 1883: 600; White, 1884: 249; Mayr, 1886d: 426; Provancher, 1887: 232 (in key); Cresson, 1887: 256; Nasonov, 1889: 17; Scudder, 1891: 708; Lameere, 1892: 62; Forel, 1892j: 307; Dalla Torre, 1893: 206; Ruzsky, 1896: 68; Saunders, 1896: 20; Ruzsky, 1902d: 10; Ruzsky, 1903c: 205; Ruzsky, 1904a: 291; Ruzsky, 1905b: 320; Wasmann, 1906: 112 (in key); Emery, 1909b: 184; Forel, 1909c: 105; Wheeler, 1909g: 172; Bondroit, 1910: 483; Wasmann, 1910: 517; Karavaiev, 1912b: 588; Wheeler, 1913i: 425 (redescription); Ruzsky, 1914b: 102; Stitz, 1914: 91; Ruzsky, 1915b: 6; Donisthorpe, 1915f: 245; Forel, 1915d: 56 (in key); Morice & Durrant, 1915: 430; Emery, 1916a: 255; Bondroit, 1917a: 174; Wheeler, 1917a: 535; Escherich, 1917: 335 (in key); Nadig, 1918: 341; Bondroit, 1918: 55; Santschi, 1919e: 246; Bondroit, 1920a: 145; Ruzsky, 1920: 78; Soudek, 1922b: 79; Vashkevich, 1924b: 147; Ruzsky, 1925a: 287; Ruzsky, 1925b: 43; Emery, 1925d: 253; Lomnicki, 1925a: 16 (in key); Kiseleva, 1925: 74; Ruzsky, 1926: 109; Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1926c: 96; Krausse, 1926a: 107; Stärcke, 1926a: 149 (in key); Donisthorpe, 1927c: 286; Karavaiev, 1927d: 282 (in key); Karavaiev, 1927e: 345; Lomnicki, 1928: 8; Karavaiev, 1929d: 214; Karavaiev, 1930b: 148; Karavaiev, 1931b: 32; Karavaiev, 1931c: 113; Karavaiev, 1931e: 216; Gösswald, 1932: 28; Santschi, 1932e: 72; Teranishi, 1932: 53; Arnol'di, 1933a: 604 (in key); Teranishi, 1934b: 38; Grandi, 1935: 104; Karavaiev, 1936: 239 (redescription); Ruzsky, 1936: 91; Kôno & Sugihara, 1939: 8; Gösswald, 1941: 69 (redescription); Novák & Sadil, 1941: 105 (in key); Holgersen, 1942b: 12; Stärcke, 1942a: 22; Holgersen, 1943c: 176 (in key); Holgersen, 1944a: 187; Ruzsky, 1946: 69; Stärcke, 1947: 144; Röszler, 1950: 212; Donisthorpe, 1950e: 1064; Betrem, 1953: 324 (in key); Yarrow, 1955a: 5; Ceballos, 1956: 319; Betrem, 1960b: 76 (in key); Dlussky, 1967a: 93; Bernard, 1967a: 308 (redescription); Kutter, 1968b: 61; Collingwood & Yarrow, 1969: 91; Baroni Urbani, 1971c: 222; Collingwood, 1971: 168; Dlussky & Pisarski, 1971: 184 (redescription); Banert & Pisarski, 1972: 355; Bolton & Collingwood, 1975: 6 (in key); Pisarski, 1975: 48; Van Boven, 1977: 170; Kutter, 1977c: 273; Collingwood, 1978: 94 (in key); Arnol'di & Dlussky, 1978: 554 (in key); Collingwood, 1979: 141; Douwes, 1979: 187; Douwes, 1981b: 217; Pavan, 1981: 1; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987a: 59; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987b: 287 (in key); Nilsson & Douwes, 1987: 86; Gösswald, 1989: 16; Atanassov & Dlussky, 1992: 277; Arakelian, 1994: 98; Radchenko, 1994b: 114 (in key); Douwes, 1995: 97; Bolton, 1995b: 202; Poldi et al., 1995: 8; Tang et al., 1995: 106; Czechowski & Douwes, 1996: 125; Espadaler, 1997g: 28; Gallé et al., 1998: 218; Tinaut & Martínez-Ibañez, 1998d: 37 (in key); Czechowski et al., 2002: 71; Karaman & Karaman, 2003: 51; Csősz & Markó, 2005: 231; Karaman & Karaman, 2005: 61; Bračko, 2006: 147; Markó et al., 2006: 68; Petrov, 2006: 113 (in key); Bračko, 2007: 20; Seifert, 2007: 309; Werner & Wiezik, 2007: 144; Zryanin & Zryanina, 2007: 233; Gratiashvili & Barjadze, 2008: 134; Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 482; Lapeva-Gjonova et al., 2010: 53; Boer, 2010: 27; Csősz et al., 2011: 59; Karaman, 2011a: 83; Legakis, 2011: 36; Borowiec & Salata, 2012: 496; Czechowski et al., 2012: 190; Guénard & Dunn, 2012: 32; Kiran & Karaman, 2012: 11; Borowiec, 2014: 78 (see note in bibliography); Bračko et al., 2014: 19; Lebas et al., 2016: 176; Radchenko, 2016: 284; Salata & Borowiec, 2018c: 45; Seifert, 2018: 318.
  • Senior synonym of Formica dorsata: Latreille, 1802a: 146; Gravenhorst, 1807: 286; Stephens, 1829b: 357; Nylander, 1846a: 902; Foerster, 1850a: 13; Smith, 1851: 1; Smith, 1855a: 100; Smith, 1858a: 3; Mayr, 1863a: 420; Roger, 1863b: 12; Smith, 1871c: 1; Forel, 1874: 98 (in list); Emery & Forel, 1879: 450; Dalla Torre, 1893: 207; Wheeler, 1913i: 425; Forel, 1915d: 57 (in key); Donisthorpe, 1915f: 245; Emery, 1925d: 253; Donisthorpe, 1927c: 286; Karavaiev, 1936: 240; Gösswald, 1941: 73; Bolton, 1995b: 202; Radchenko, 2016: 284.
  • Senior synonym of Formica ferruginea: Emery, 1892c: 161; Dalla Torre, 1893: 207; Emery, 1925d: 253; Karavaiev, 1936: 240; Gösswald, 1941: 73; Bolton, 1995b: 202; Radchenko, 2016: 284.
  • Senior synonym of Formica gaullei: Yarrow, 1955a: 4; Bernard, 1967a: 308; Bolton, 1995b: 202; Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 482; Radchenko, 2016: 284.
  • Senior synonym Formica rufa meridionalis: Yarrow, 1955a: 4; Dlussky, 1967a: 93; Dlussky & Pisarski, 1971: 184; Bolton, 1995b: 202; Radchenko, 2016: 284.
  • Senior synonym of Formica rufa obscurata: Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 482.
  • Senior synonym of Formica piniphila: Mayr, 1855: 328; Nylander, 1856b: 60; Smith, 1858a: 3; Roger, 1863b: 12; Mayr, 1863a: 420; Smith, 1871c: 1; Dours, 1873: 165; André, 1874c: 202 (in list); Forel, 1874: 98 (in list); Emery & Forel, 1879: 450; Dalla Torre, 1893: 208; Wheeler, 1913i: 425; Donisthorpe, 1915f: 245; Donisthorpe, 1927c: 286; Karavaiev, 1936: 240; Gösswald, 1941: 73; Yarrow, 1955a: 4; Betrem, 1960a: 131 (in text); Betrem, 1960b: 76 (in key); Dlussky, 1967a: 93; Bernard, 1967a: 308; Baroni Urbani, 1971c: 222; Dlussky & Pisarski, 1971: 184; Pisarski, 1975: 48; Van Boven, 1977: 170; Kutter, 1977c: 273; Bolton, 1995b: 202; Czechowski et al., 2002: 71; Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 482; Czechowski et al., 2012: 190; Radchenko, 2016: 284.
  • Senior synonym of Formica rufa rufopratensis: Karavaiev, 1936: 240; Bernard, 1967a: 308; Dlussky, 1967a: 93; Baroni Urbani, 1971c: 222; Dlussky & Pisarski, 1971: 184; Pisarski, 1975: 48; Bolton, 1995b: 202; Czechowski et al., 2002: 71; Czechowski et al., 2012: 190; Radchenko, 2016: 284.
  • Material of the nomen nudum Formica apicalis: referred here by Roger, 1862c: 287; Roger, 1863b: 12; Donisthorpe, 1915f: 245; Bolton, 1995b: 202.
  • Material of the unavailable names Formica rufa polyctena bondroiti, Formica rufa emeryi referred here by Yarrow, 1955a: 4.
  • Material of the unavailable name Formica rufa pratensis major referred here by Dlussky, 1967a: 93.
  • [Note: Zetterstedt, 1838: 448, 450, nominates Formica rufa twice. The first mention (p. 448) is to the genuine Formica rufa Linnaeus, 1761, as indicated by his sub-entry “Fabr. [1804] Piez. 398.11”. The second mention of Formica rufa is sub-entered “Fabr. [1804] Piez. 400.17,” but in Fabricius, 1804, this entry refers to Formica rubra, now Myrmica rubra.].
  • Current subspecies: nominal plus F. r. angusticeps, F. r. brevisetosa, F. r. constricta, F. r. obscurata, F. r. rufopratensoides, F. r. tshugunovi.
Junior synonyms
Citations

Extant: 6 valid subspecies

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