Formica fusca Linnaeus, 1758 valid
Formica fusca Linnaeus, 1758: 580 (w.) EUROPE. Palearctic.
Primary type information: “Habitat in Europae” Note: type-locality Sweden, after Linnaeus, 1761: 426, Yarrow, 1954a: 232
  • Latreille, 1798: 42 (q.m.); Latreille, 1802a: 160 (q.m.); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1953c: 164 (l.).
  • Combination in Formica (Serviformica): Forel, 1913j: 361.
  • Status as species: Linnaeus, 1761: 426; Linnaeus, 1767: 962; Fabricius, 1782: 490; Retzius, 1783: 75; Geoffroy, in Fourcroy, 1785: 453; Fabricius, 1787: 308; Razoumowsky, 1789: 224; Gmelin, 1790: 2799; Christ, 1791: 512; Olivier, 1792: 493; Fabricius, 1793: 352; Latreille, 1798: 42; Latreille, 1802a: 159; Walckenaer, 1802: 162; Fabricius, 1804: 399; Jurine, 1807: 272; Latreille, 1809: 126; Latreille, 1817a: 99; Lamarck, 1817: 96; Billberg, 1820: 104; Stephens, 1829b: 357; Losana, 1834: 317; Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, 1835: 205; Kirby, 1837: 262; Zetterstedt, 1838: 448; Schilling, 1839: 53; Brullé, 1840: 84; Nylander, 1846a: 919; Nylander, 1849: 30; Foerster, 1850a: 33; Smith, 1851: 3; Schenck, 1852: 43; Mayr, 1855: 346 (redescription); Smith, 1855a: 104; Nylander, 1856b: 65; Gredler, 1858: 9; Smith, 1858a: 5, 52; Mayr, 1861: 47 (in key); Meinert, 1861: 316; Mayr, 1863a: 415; Roger, 1863b: 13; Emery, 1869b: 10; Smith, 1871c: 1; Dours, 1873: 165; Forel, 1874: 53 (in key); André, 1874b: 185 (in key); Mayr, 1877a: 7; Emery, 1878a: ix (in list); Emery, 1878: 49; Emery & Forel, 1879: 451; Mayr, 1880: 27; Saunders, 1880: 207; Provancher, 1881b: 356; André, 1882c: 182 (in key); Provancher, 1883: 599; White, 1884: 253; Mayr, 1886d: 426; Provancher, 1887: 232 (in key); Cresson, 1887: 256; Nasonov, 1889: 19; Mayr, 1889: 278; Forel, 1890b: lxvii; Saunders, 1890: 203; Emery, 1891c: 16; Lameere, 1892: 63; Dalla Torre, 1893: 196; Emery, 1893k: 657; Medina, 1893: 104; Forel, 1895e: 227; Ruzsky, 1896: 70; Saunders, 1896: 22; Forel, 1899b: 128; Ruzsky, 1902d: 11; Ruzsky, 1903c: 206; Bingham, 1903: 336; Ruzsky, 1904a: 288; Forel, 1904c: 384; Ruzsky, 1905b: 372; Forel, 1906b: 85; Forel, 1906c: 189; Wasmann, 1906: 112 (in key); Forel, 1907h: 19; Emery, 1909b: 193; Forel, 1909c: 105; Bondroit, 1910: 482; Karavaiev, 1912b: 590; Krausse, 1912c: 165; Wheeler, 1913i: 494 (redescription); Ruzsky, 1914b: 104; Stitz, 1914: 92; Ruzsky, 1915a: 422; Ruzsky, 1915b: 11; Forel, 1915d: 63 (in key); Donisthorpe, 1915f: 304; Morice & Durrant, 1915: 430; Emery, 1916a: 254; Ruzsky, 1916: 5; Wheeler, 1917a: 545; Wheeler, 1917e: 19; Escherich, 1917: 336 (in key); Menozzi, 1918: 88; Bondroit, 1918: 48; Nadig, 1918: 340; Santschi, 1919e: 247; Ruzsky, 1920: 79; Kulmatycki, 1922: 84; Soudek, 1922b: 83; Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1923b: 245; Müller, 1923b: 138; Finzi, 1923a: 4; Vashkevich, 1924b: 147; Comes, 1925: 1 (footnote); Emery, 1925d: 247; Lomnicki, 1925a: 18 (in key); Soudek, 1925b: 15; Kiseleva, 1925: 74; Ruzsky, 1925a: 287; Santschi, 1925g: 352; Schkaff, 1925b: 276; Donisthorpe, 1926b: 18; Betrem, 1926: 214; Essig, 1926: 866; Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1926c: 96; Karavaiev, 1926e: 197; Stärcke, 1926a: 147 (in key); Donisthorpe, 1927c: 349; Karavaiev, 1927a: 301; Karavaiev, 1927d: 285 (in key); Menozzi, 1927b: 92; Lomnicki, 1928: 9; Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1929b: 38; Finzi, 1930d: 317; Karavaiev, 1930b: 148; Wheeler, 1930k: 80; Santschi, 1931a: 13; Karavaiev, 1931b: 32; Karavaiev, 1931c: 110; Karavaiev, 1931e: 215; Soudek, 1931: 16; Gösswald, 1932: 44; Menozzi, 1932b: 312; Santschi, 1932e: 73; Santschi, 1932h: 5; Teranishi, 1932: 52; Arnol'di, 1933a: 604 (in key); Santschi, 1934d: 281; Grandi, 1935: 103; Zimmermann, 1935: 53; Cole, 1936a: 37; Karavaiev, 1936: 227 (redescription); Ruzsky, 1936: 92; Cole, 1937b: 137; Stitz, 1939: 348; Menozzi, 1939a: 319; Wing, 1939: 164; Teranishi, 1940: 24; Novák & Sadil, 1941: 107 (in key); Eidmann, 1941a: 26; Holgersen, 1942b: 15; Holgersen, 1943c: 177 (in key); Holgersen, 1944a: 189; Wheeler & Wheeler, 1944: 260; Ruzsky, 1946: 69; Van Boven, 1947b: 187 (in key); Röszler, 1950: 217; Donisthorpe, 1950e: 1065; Creighton, 1950a: 532; Smith, 1951c: 863; Chapman & Capco, 1951: 198; Consani & Zangheri, 1952: 45; Cole, 1954c: 166; Yarrow, 1954a: 230; Azuma, 1955: 80; Ceballos, 1956: 318; Smith, 1958c: 155; Carter, 1962a: 8 (in list); Baroni Urbani, 1964c: 166; Dlussky, 1965a: 36 (in key); Cole, 1966b: 23 (in key); Beck et al., 1967: 69; Bernard, 1967a: 293 (redescription); Dlussky, 1967a: 58; Pisarski, 1967a: 416; Smith, 1967a: 371; Arnol'di, 1968b: 1821; Cagniant, 1968a: 145; Kutter, 1968b: 61; Collingwood & Yarrow, 1969: 88; Collingwood, 1970b: 378; Cagniant, 1970c: 38; Baroni Urbani, 1971c: 236; Collingwood, 1971: 169; Dlussky & Pisarski, 1971: 148 (redescription); Banert & Pisarski, 1972: 354; Francoeur, 1973: 189 (redescription); Bolton & Collingwood, 1975: 6 (in key); Francoeur, 1975: 262; Hunt & Snelling, 1975: 23; Pisarski, 1975: 40; Tarbinsky, 1976: 180 (redescription); Aktaç, 1977: 127; Van Boven, 1977: 163; Wheeler & Wheeler, 1977b: 15 (in key); Collingwood, 1978: 94 (in key); Arnol'di & Dlussky, 1978: 553 (in key); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1978b: 395; Collingwood, 1979: 120; Francoeur & Snelling, 1979: 6; Smith, 1979: 1452; Kupyanskaya, 1980: 101; Allred, 1982: 464; Kupyanskaya, 1986b: 97; Wheeler & Wheeler, 1986g: 89; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987a: 59; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987b: 287 (in key); Nilsson & Douwes, 1987: 80; DuBois & LaBerge, 1988: 147; MacKay et al., 1988: 114; Wu, 1990: 5 (in key); Kupyanskaya, 1990a: 183; Le Moli & Rosi, 1991: 37; Atanassov & Dlussky, 1992: 260; Wang, 1992: 680; Arakelian, 1994: 96; Radchenko, 1994b: 113 (in key); Wheeler et al., 1994: 306; Douwes, 1995: 98; Bolton, 1995b: 195; Poldi et al., 1995: 8; Wu & Wang, 1995a: 144; Tang et al., 1995: 105; Espadaler, 1997g: 28; Collingwood & Prince, 1998: 26 (in key); Gallé et al., 1998: 217; Collingwood & Heatwole, 2002: 13; Chang & He, 2002a: 51 (in key); Czechowski et al., 2002: 79; Mackay & Mackay, 2002: 344; Karaman & Karaman, 2003: 49; Coovert, 2005: 141; Csősz & Markó, 2005: 232; Karaman & Karaman, 2005: 59; Ward, 2005: 63; Bračko, 2006: 147; Markó et al., 2006: 67; Petrov, 2006: 72, 114 (in key); Bračko, 2007: 19; Radchenko, 2007: 35; Seifert, 2007: 295; Zryanin & Zryanina, 2007: 233; Gratiashvili & Barjadze, 2008: 133; Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 481; Lapeva-Gjonova et al., 2010: 49; Boer, 2010: 30; Csősz et al., 2011: 59; Karaman, 2011b: 77; Legakis, 2011: 35; Seppä et al., 2011: 31; Borowiec & Salata, 2012: 494; Czechowski et al., 2012: 205; Guénard & Dunn, 2012: 31; Kiran & Karaman, 2012: 11; Borowiec, 2014: 74 (see note in bibliography); Bračko et al., 2014: 19; Bharti et al., 2016: 27; Lebas et al., 2016: 190; Radchenko, 2016: 294; Salata & Borowiec, 2018c: 45; Schär et al., 2018: 6; Seifert, 2018: 299.
  • Senior synonym of Formica barbata: Emery & Forel, 1879: 451; Dalla Torre, 1893: 196; Emery, 1925d: 247; Karavaiev, 1936: 228; Bolton, 1995b: 195; Radchenko, 2016: 294.
  • Senior synonym of Formica flavipes: Latreille, 1802a: 161; Stephens, 1829b: 357; Smith, 1851: 3; Roger, 1863b: 13; Mayr, 1863a: 415; Forel, 1874: 98 (in list); Emery & Forel, 1879: 451; Dalla Torre, 1893: 196; Forel, 1915d: 63 (in key); Donisthorpe, 1915f: 304; Emery, 1925d: 247; Donisthorpe, 1927c: 349; Karavaiev, 1936: 228; Bolton, 1995b: 195; Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 481; Radchenko, 2016: 294.
  • Senior synonym of Formica glebaria: Schenck, 1852: 43; Mayr, 1855: 346; Nylander, 1856b: 65; Smith, 1858a: 6; Mayr, 1863a: 415; Roger, 1863b: 13; Dours, 1873: 165; André, 1874c: 202 (in list); Forel, 1874: 98 (in list); Emery & Forel, 1879: 451; Dalla Torre, 1893: 197; Forel, 1894c: 403; Lomnicki, 1925a: 18 (in key); Yarrow, 1954a: 230; Dlussky, 1967a: 58; Pisarski, 1975: 40; Tarbinsky, 1976: 180; Radchenko, 2007: 35; Czechowski et al., 2012: 205; Radchenko, 2016: 294.
  • Senior synonym of Formica libera: Latreille, 1802a: 159; Stephens, 1829b: 357; Smith, 1851: 3; Roger, 1863b: 13; Mayr, 1863a: 415; Forel, 1874: 98 (in list); Emery & Forel, 1879: 451; Dalla Torre, 1893: 200 (footnote); Emery, 1925d: 247; Karavaiev, 1936: 227; Bolton, 1995b: 195; Radchenko, 2016: 294.
  • Senior synonym of Formica fusca pallipes: Dlussky, 1967a: 58; Tarbinsky, 1976: 180; Bolton, 1995b: 195; Radchenko, 2007: 35; Radchenko, 2016: 294.
  • Senior synonym of Formica fusca rufipes: Dlussky, 1967a: 58; Bolton, 1995b: 195; Radchenko, 2007: 35; Radchenko, 2016: 294.
  • Senior synonym of Formica tristis: Emery, 1892c: 162; Dalla Torre, 1893: 196; Forel, 1915d: 63 (in key); Donisthorpe, 1915f: 304; Emery, 1925d: 247; Donisthorpe, 1927c: 349; Karavaiev, 1936: 228; Bolton, 1995b: 195; Radchenko, 2016: 294.
  • Material of the unavailable name Formica nigra major referred here by Donisthorpe, 1915f: 304.
Junior synonyms
Current subspecies (nominal plus)
Citations

Extant: 5 valid subspecies

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