Formicidae Latreille, 1809 valid
Formicariae Latreille, 1809: 124 Type-genus: Formica.
  • Formicidae as family: Latreille, 1809: 124 [Formicariae]; Leach, 1815: 147 [Formicarides]; Stephens, 1829b: 356 [first spelling as Formicidae]; Haliday, 1836: 331; Westwood, 1839a: 217; Swainson & Shuckard, 1840: 171; Nylander, 1846a: 877; Foerster, 1850a: 1 [Formicariae]; Mayr, 1855: 275 [Formicina]; Smith, 1857a: 52; Smith, 1858a: 1; Mayr, 1861: 21; Mayr, 1865: 6; Heer, 1867: 6 [Formicaria]; Forel, 1870: 307 [Formicinae]; Forel, 1874: 19 [Formicariae]; Dalla Torre, 1893: 1; Forel, 1899b: 1; Ruzsky, 1902d: 5 [Formicarii]; Bingham, 1903: 1; Ruzsky, 1905b: 91 [Formicariae or Formicidae]; Ashmead, 1905c: 384; all subsequent authors.
FAMILY FORMICIDAE REFERENCES, WORLD
WORLD CATALOGUES

Roger, 1863b: 1 (Formicidae); Mayr, 1863a: 394 (Formicidae); Dalla Torre, 1893: 1 (Formicidae); Emery, 1910b: 3 (Dorylinae); Emery, 1911e: 2 (Ponerinae); Emery, 1913a: 2 (Dolichoderinae); Emery, 1921c: 3, Emery, 1922c: 95 and Emery, 1924f: 207 (Myrmicinae); Emery, 1925d: 2 (Formicinae); Shattuck, 1994: 1 (Aneuretinae and Dolichoderinae); Bolton, 1995b: 7 (Formicidae)

WORLD SYNOPTIC CLASSIFICATIONS

Forel, 1893b: 161 (Formicidae); Emery, 1895l: 764 (Formicidae); Emery, 1896e: 173 (Formicidae); Ashmead, 1905c: 381 (Formicidae); Wheeler, 1910a: 134 (Formicidae); Emery, 1910b: 3 (Dorylinae); Emery, 1911e: 2 (Ponerinae); Emery, 1913a: 2 (Dolichoderinae); Forel, 1917: 235 (Formicidae); Emery, 1921c: 3 and Emery, 1922c: 95 (Myrmicinae); Wheeler, 1922: 631 (Formicidae); Emery, 1924f: 207 (Myrmicinae); Emery, 1925d: 2 (Formicinae); Brown, 1973b: 165, 178 (Formicidae); Snelling, 1981: 387 (Formicidae); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1985b: 256 (Formicidae); Dlussky & Fedoseeva, 1988: 77 (Formicidae); Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 9 (Formicidae); Bolton, 1994: 12 (Formicidae); Bolton, 2003: 4 (Formicidae); Engel & Grimaldi, 2005: 4 (Formicidae); Ward, 2007C: 549 (Formicidae); Borysenko, 2017: 1

WORLD IDENTIFICATION KEYS

Emery, 1896e: 173 (Formicidae subfamilies and genera); Emery, 1910b: 4 (Dorylinae tribes and genera); Emery, 1911e: 4 (Ponerinae tribes and genera); Emery, 1913a: 6 (Dolichoderinae tribes and genera); Escherich, 1917: 2 (Formicidae subfamilies); Emery, 1921c: 9, 12, 16 (Myrmicinae tribes and genera); Wheeler, 1922: 631 (Formicidae subfamilies, tribes and genera); Emery, 1925d: 7 (Formicinae tribes and genera); Clark, 1951: 14 (Formicidae subfamilies); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1972a: 42 (Formicidae subfamilies); Snelling, 1981: 386 (Formicidae subfamilies); Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 33 (Formicidae subfamilies and genera); Bolton, 1990c: 1361 (Formicidae subfamilies); Shattuck, 1992c: 20 (Dolichoderinae genera); Ward, 1990: 464 (Pseudomyrmecinae genera); Brothers & Finnamore, 1993: 218 (Formicidae subfamilies); Bolton, 1994: 7 (Formicidae subfamilies and genera); Bolton, 2003: 11 (revision of subfamilies); Boudinot, 2015: 14 (male-based subfamily key); Cantone, 2017: 1 (wing venation of males, key to most genera)

ANATOMY AND MORPHOLOGY OF FORMICIDAE

GENERAL: Mayr, 1861: 1 (general morphology); Forel, 1874: 1 (general anatomy); Janet, 1902: 25 (general anatomy); Janet, 1904: 3 (general anatomy); Janet, 1905: 1 (Lasius cranial anatomy); Janet, 1909 1 (general morphology); Wheeler, 1910a: 13 (general morphology, anatomy); Janet, 1923: 5 (anatomical drawings synopsis); Whelden, 1957: 271 (Rhytidoponera general anatomy, see also Whelden, 1958a: 80); Whelden, 1958b: 1 (Stigmatomma general anatomy); Whelden, 1960: 93 (Rhytidoponera metallica); Schneider, 1964: 103 (antennal anatomy review); Pavan & Ronchetti, 1955: 3 (Linepithema humile, anatomy); Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 5 (glossary, glandular anatomy); Bolton, 1994: 191 (morphology glossary); Serna & MacKay, 2010: 1 (Procryptocerus morphology, see also Serna et al., 2011: 67); Keller, 2011: 1 (phylogenetic analysis of morphology); Delsinne et al., 2019: 387 (morphology glossary)

GLANDULAR SYSTEM: Janet, 1894c: 989 (general); Janet, 1894d: 45 (Formica pharyngeal glands); Janet, 1898b: 1168 (Myrmicinae); Janet, 1898d: 1 ({tMyrmica}); Whelden, 1963a: 13 (Eciton w., q. comparison, see also: Whelden, 1963b: 90); Hölldobler & Engel, 1979: 285 and Hölldobler & Engel-Siegel, 1982: 113 (tergal and sternal glands); Hölldobler & Engel-Siegel, 1985: 201 (metapleural gland); Billen, 1986b: 165 (Dufour's gland); Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 5, 229 (anatomy, exocrine glands); Billen, 1993: 4 (exocrine glands); Hölldobler et al., 1996: 157 (metatibial gland); Schönitzer et al., 1996: 107 (Messor rufitarsis antenna cleaner gland); Wenseleers et al., 1998: 121 (cloacal gland); Jensen & Borgesen, 2000: 171 (Monomorium fat body); Gusmão et al., 2001: 31 (Atta ultramorphology metapleural gland); Lommelen et al., 2003: 209 (Neoponera labial gland development); Billen, 2019: 165 (synopsis of exocrine glands) [Editor's Note: There are numerous references to add; this section will need refinement.]

SKELETON, MUSCULATURE: Lubbock, 1881: 141 (Lasius w.q. mesosomal skeletomusculature); Janet, 1894e: 591 (Myrmica metasoma); Janet, 1894f: 185 Myrmica petiole); Janet, 1895b: 610 (muscles); Janet, 1895c: 1 (articulatory membrane, tendon, muscle); Janet, 1897b: 1 (Myrmica post-cephalic segmentation, musculature); Janet, 1898a: 435 (post-cephalic segmentation, membranes); Janet, 1898c: 638 (sting function, glands); Janet, 1898e: 1 (Myrmica sting function, gland); Janet, 1898f: 393 (Myrmica q. mesosoma); Janet, 1899a: 249 (Myrmica alate mesosoma, flight mechanism); Janet, 1899b: 295 (Myrmica tentorium); Janet, 1906: 522 (metanotal diaphragm); Emery, 1900a: 103 (mesosomal exoskeleton); Janet, 1902: 1 (Myrmica metasoma}; Janet, 1907: 1 (Lasius histolyzed flight musculature); Snodgrass, 1910: 81 (mesosomal exoskeleton); Bugnion, 1930: 85 (mouthparts); Tulloch, 1935: 93 (mesosomal exoskeleton); Reid, 1941: 418 (worker thoracic exoskeleton); Gregg, 1953c: 328 (promesonotal suture motility); Short, 1959: 194 (Dorylus anterior metasomal skeletomusculature); Markl, 1966: 138 (Formica mesosoma skeletomusculature, innervation); Gotwald, 1969b: 1 (mouthparts and gaster); Matsuda, 1970: 353 (review of mesosomal anatomy); Masson, 1972b: 343 (Camponotus antennal articulations); Jones et al., 1978: 603 (Solenopsis flight musculature histolysis); Kugler, 1978a: 413 (sting morphology, Myrmicinae); Kugler, 1979c: 117 (sting evolutionary morphology [for treatment of other groups, search for C. Kugler references]); Harris, 1979: 1 (surface sculpture); Saini et al., 1982: (Camponotus w.q. mesosomal skeletomusculature); Hermann & Chao, 1983: 329 (sting comparative anatomy, emphasis on furcula); Bolton, 1990a: (abdominal morphology); Hashimoto, 1991b: 289 (tibial spurs); Menzel & Tautz, 1994: 735 (subgenual organ); Gronenberg & Ehmer, 1995: 68 (tubular muscle fibers); Hashimoto, 1996: 340 (anterior metasomal skeletomusculature); Gronenberg & Ehmer, 1996: 153 (Anochetus mandibular muscles); Ehmer & Gronenberg, 1997: 287 (antennal musculature, physiology); Perrault, 1999B: 125 (thoracic anatomy); Paul & Gronenberg, 1999: 797 (cranial muscle attachments, physiology); Paul, 2001: 7 (mandible musculature, movements); Paul et al., 2002: 39 (cranial, mouthpart musculature); Schofield et al., 2002: 579 (mandibular tooth hardness); Perrault, 2005: 291 (anterior metasomal anatomy); Muscedere et al., 2011: 783 (Pheidole cranial muscle maturation); Boudinot, 2013: 29 (male genitalia); Nguyen et al., 2014: 497 (Formica neck joint); Boudinot, 2015: 1 (family diagnosis, mesosoma, coxae); Raderschall et al., 2016: 1449 (head roll control); Khalife et al., 2018: 30 (Melissotarsus cranial and leg anatomy); Richter et al., 2019: 26 (cranial and mouthpart anatomy); Kubota et al., 2019: 1 (Lasius tentorium); Liu et al., 2019: 1 (Myrmecia mesosomal anatomy, and apomorphies for family); Barlow et al., 2019 1 (mandible histology).

STRIDULITRUM: Janet, 1893: 159; Janet, 1894a: 109 (Myrmica); Markl, 1973: 258

ALIMENTARY CANAL: Forel, 1878c: 339 (proventriculus); Bugnion, 1926 33 (anterior alimentary canal, see also: Bugnion, 1927a: 59; Bugnion, 1927c: 105; Bugnion, 1929: 55; Bugnion, 1930: 85); Haskins & Whelden, 1954: 33 (Myrmecia food transfer); Eisner, 1957: 439 (proventriculus); Brown, 1988h: 17 (malpighian tubule numbers); Caetano, 1988: 129 (digestive tract anatomy)

TRACHEAL SYSTEM: Keister, 1963: 336 (Camponotus tracheal system anatomy); Délye, 1965: 285 (spiracle anatomy, function); Fedoseeva, 2017: 49 (metathoracic spiracles).

WINGS: Emery, 1913d: 577 (wing venation); Brown & Nutting, 1950: 113 (wing venation); Ogata, 1991b: 64 (forewing venation); Basibuyuk & Quicke, 1997: 1563 (hamuli); Perfilieva, 2010: 965 (wing venation); Cantone & Von Zuben, 2019: 1 (hindwing venation); Cantone, 2019: 1 (wing venation).

LARVAE: Wheeler, 1918c: 293 (larvae); Athias-Henriot, 1947: 247 (larval anatomy); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1976b: 45 (larvae); Petralia & Vinson, 1979: 472 (Solenopsis invicta development egg, larva); Petralia & Vinson, 1980: 89 (Solenopsis invicta fourth instar internal anatomy); Petralia & Vinson, 1980: 375 (larval ventral region); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1986e: 684 (larvae); Petralia & Haut, 1986: 16 ({TCamponotus} larval labial gland)

SENSILLA: [Editor's note: See also neuroanatomy] Jaisson, 1969: 279 (Myrmicinae antennal sensilla distribution); Jaisson, 1970: 1192 (Atta laevigata sensillar sexual dimorphism); Masson, 1970: 346 (receptor anatomy, function); Masson, 1972b: 343 (Camponotus, see also Masson et al., 1972); Masson & Gabouriaut, 1973: 39 (Camponotus Johnston's organ); Masson & Friggi, 1971: 618 (Camponotus sensilla coeloconica); Dumpert, 1972b: 95 (Lasius fuliginosus antennal sensillae); Walther, 1979a: 30 (antennal sensillae, comparison to other Aculeata); Walther, 1979b: 313 (Formica rufa antennal sensillae); Walther, 1981: 146 (cuticular sense organs, phylogeny); Walther, 1983: 373 (antennal sensilla comparative morphology); Walther, 1985: 173 (antennal sensilla review); Hashimoto, 1990: 491 (antennal sensillae, comparison to other Aculeata); Hashimoto, 1991a: 125 (antennal and labial sensilla); Walther, 1994: 360 (Nothomyrmecia macrops antennal sensillae); Kleineidam et al., 2000: 43 (Atta sexdens sensillum ampullaceum ultrastructure, physiology); Renthal et al., 2003: 405 (Solenopsis invicta antennal sensilla distribution); Marques-Silva et al., 2006: 885 (Dinoponera lucida antennal sensillae, secretory glands); Nakanishi et al., 2009: 79 (Camponotus japonicus sexual dimorphism antennal sensillae); Barsagade et al., 2010: 53 (Camponotus compressus: mouthpart sensillae); Mysore et al., 2010: 310 (Camponotus compressus antennal sensillae, glomeruli, anatomy, development); Siddiqui et al., 2010: 6956 (Brachyponera sennaarensis antennal sensillae ultrastructure); Barsagade et al., 2013: 113 (Camponotus compressus: antennal sensillae); Ramirez-Esquivel et al., 2014: 543 (Myrmecia pyriformis antennal sensillae); Gill et al., 2013: 834 (antennal sensillae density-dependent function); Ramirez-Esquivel et al., 2017: 552 (Temnothorax rugatulus setation, compound eye anatomy); Barsagade et al., 2017: 99 (Leptogenys dentilobis: mouthpart sensillae); Gathalkar & Barsagade, 2018: 1 (Myrmicaria brunnea head, antennal sensillae); Barsagade et al., 2018: 848 (Tetraponera rufonigra leg sensillae); Barsagade et al., 2019: 1 (Leptogenys chinensis, antennal sensillae)

NEUROANATOMY: Janet, 1894b: 814 (antennal nerves, chordotonal organ); Janet, 1899b: 295 (Myrmica cranial nerves, corpora allata); Pietschker, 1910: 1 (brain structure); Brun, 1952: 74 (Tetramorium schneideri neuroanatomy); Goll, 1967: 143 (Formica neuroanatomy); {ref corpus pedunculatum formicidae}: 511 (mushroom body, "corpus pedunculatum"); Masson, 1969: 171 (Camponotus deutocerebrum); Bressac & Rabitsch, 1969: 135 (Aphaenogaster senilis cranial nervous system); Masson, 1972a: 31 (deutocerebrum); Kelber et al., 2009: 273 (Attini/Attina antennal lobe anatomy); Gronenberg & Hölldobler, 1999: 229 (optical and antennal neuroanatomy); Schoeters & Billen, 1999: 139 (terminal abdominal ganglia); Paul & Gronenberg, 2002: 255 (mandible closer muscle motor control); Seid et al., 2005: 269 (Pheidole age-related change mushroom bodies); Kühn-Bühlmann & Wehner, 2006: 511 (Cataglyphis mushroom body variation); Wehner, 2009: 85 (navigational architecture); Stieb et al., 2010: 408 (Cataglyphis mushroom body variation)

GAMETES: Blochman, 1884: 143 (oogenesis); Blochman, 1886: 243 (oogenesis); Lams, 1908: 528 (Camponotus herculeanus spermatogenesis); Buchner, 1918: 1 (oogenesis); Wheeler et al., 1990: 343 (sperm comparative ultrastructure); Moya et al., 2007: 181 (Pseudomyrmex sperm ultrastructure).

KARYOLOGY: Whelden & Haskins, 1954: 579 (family-level comparisons); Crozier, 1970a: 109 (karyology); Imai et al., 1984: 5 (karyology); Imai et al., 1984: 66 (karyology); Imai et al., 1985: 46 (karyology).

EYES: Bernstein & Finn, 1971: 708 (Formica rufa intranidal ommatidium variation); Menzi, 1986: 11 (nocturnal/diurnal adaptations); Greiner et al., 2007: 879 (Myrmecia photoreceptor variation); Nakanishi et al., 2009: e76015 (Polyrhachis sakalava compound eye light-regime adaptations); Narendra et al., 2011: 1141 (Myrmecia interspecific and inter-caste visual adaptations); Schwarz et al., 2011: 128 (Melophorus bagoti visual system); Narendra et al., 2016: 22331 (Camponotus consobrinus inter-caste eye anatomy); Ramirez-Esquivel et al., 2017: 552 (Temnothorax rugatulus setation, compound eye anatomy);

STRIGIL (= "antenna cleaner"), TARSI, ATTACHMENT STRUCTURES: Janet, 1895a: 691 (Myrmica strigil); Gennerich, 1922: 26 (strigil); Dashman, 1953: 56 (general pretarsal terminology); Freeland et al., 1982: 257 (arolium presence across Formicidae); Schönitzer & Lawitzky, 1986: 189 (antenna cleaning apparatus ultrastructure); Schönitzer & Lawitzky, 1987: (antenna cleaning apparatus Aculeata comparison); Francoeur & Loiselle, 1988a: 333 (strigil, evolution); Basibuyuk & Quicke, 1994: 205 (Dorylus strigil); Basibuyuk & Quicke, 1995: 171, 176 (antenna cleaning apparatus); Basibuyuk & Quickle, 1999: 349 (grooming, tarsus, tibial spur morphology); Basibuyuk et al., 2000: 625 (manubrium, manubrial sensillae); Federle et al., 2000: 505 (comparative attachment capacities); Federle et al., 2001: 6215 (pretarsal anatomy, functional morphology); Orivel et al., 2001: 449 (Ponerinae pretarsal morphology); Federle et al., 2002: 1100 (Oecophylla smaragdina aroliar wet adhesion); Schulmeister, 2003: 156 (Cataglyphis tarsal plantulae); Böröczky et al., 2013: 3616 (Camponotus pennsylvanicus grooming); Federle et al., 2004: 67 (Oecophylla smaragdina arolium biomechanics); Federle & Endlein, 2004: 67 (Oecophylla smaragdina arolium control); Endlein & Federle, 2015: e0141269 (Oecophylla smaragdina arolium, distal tarsal brush); Hackmann et al., 2015: (functional morphology antenna cleaner); Billen et al., 2017: 24 (Brachyponera sennaarensis, Daceton armigerum pretarsus, climbing ability)

EVOLUTION AND PHYLOGENY OF FORMICIDAE

Wheeler, 1920: 52; Emery, 1920e: 370; Donisthorpe, 1922b: xlvi; Wheeler, 1923g: 156; Wheeler, 1928h: 124; Stitz, 1935a: 211; Morley, 1938: 190; Brown & Nutting, 1950: 113; Bernard, 1951c: 1041; Brown, 1954e: 30; Wilson et al., 1967: 12; Taylor, 1978a: 982; Rasnitsyn, 1980: 45-46 (foldout page); Lutz, 1986: 213; Dlussky & Fedoseeva, 1988: 137; Baroni Urbani, 1989: 137; Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 26; Hashimoto, 1991a: 125; Hashimoto, 1991b: 289; Baroni Urbani et al., 1992: 301; Shattuck, 1992b: 203; Brothers & Carpenter, 1993: 227; Ward, 1994: 173; Hashimoto, 1996: 340; Crozier et al., 1997: 22; Grimaldi et al., 1997: 25; Perrault, 1999A: 125; Brothers, 1999: 233; Grimaldi & Agosti, 2000B: 13680; Ohnishi et al., 2004: 419; Astruc et al., 2004: 880; Grimaldi & Engel, 2005: 440; Wilson & Hölldobler, 2005A: 7411; Brady et al., 2006: 18172; Moreau et al., 2006: 101; Ouellette et al., 2006: 359; Rabeling et al., 2008: 14914; Keller, 2011: 1; Moreau & Bell, 2013: 2245; Johnson et al., 2013: 2060; Branstetter et al., 2017: 774; Economo et al., 2018: 1; Fernández et al., 2019: 57.

PALAEONTOLOGY OF FORMICIDAE

Scudder, 1891: 682 (fossil taxa catalogue); Handlirsch, 1907: 859 (fossil taxa catalogue); Wheeler, 1915i: 1 (Baltic amber fauna synopsis); Burnham, 1979: 108 (fossils in amber checklist); Keilbach, 1982: 272 (fossils in amber checklist); Spahr, 1987: 41 (fossils in amber checklist); Carpenter, 1992: 490 (fossil genera review); Bolton, 1995b: 4 (fossil taxa checklist, in catalogue); Grimaldi et al., 1997: 1 (Cretaceous genera in amber review); Dlussky, 1997A: 617 (Baltic amber genera key); Bolton, 2003: 73 (fossil subfamilies synopsis); Dlussky & Rasnitsyn, 2007: 118 (Palaeontological record); Dlussky & Rasnitsyn, 2009: 1024 (European Upper Eocene amber, synopsis of species); LaPolla et al., 2013 (Mesozoic and Cenozoic major ant fossil deposits list, Cretaceous and Cenozoic ant fossils bibliographical review); Dlussky et al., 2015 (Late Eocene of Sikhote-Alin fossils); Barden & Grimaldi, 2016 (Cretaceous stem-group ants and phylogeny); Barden, 2017 (literature review); Zheng et al., 2018 (subfamily records from Late Cretaceous burmite); Barden & Engel, 2019 (broad-perspective review of fossil record)

OTHER GENERAL REFERENCES

Bolton, 1995a: 1038 (census of extant taxa); Ward et al., 1996: 55 (bibliography of systematics); Brown, 2000A: 46 (overview of genera); Brandão, 2000: 172 (list of major ant collections); Bolton, 2003: 15, 77 (diagnosis, synopsis); Bolton, 2007A: 51 (method for taxonomic revisions); Taylor, 2007: 580 (eusociality in ants)

Regional catalogues and checklists

NEARCTIC & PALEARCTIC: Smith, 1951c: 778; Smith, 1958c: 108 (first supplement to previous); Smith, 1967a: 343 (second supplement); Smith, 1979: 1323; Karaman, 2011 (Montenegro catalogue); Borowiec, 2014 (Europe, Mediterranean Basin and adjacent regions); Castaño-Meneses et al., 2015 (Mexico partial checklist).

NEOTROPICAL: Kempf, 1972b: 3; Brandão, 1991: 319 (supplement to previous); Castaño-Meneses et al., 2015 (Mexico partial checklist); Salazar & Donoso, 2013: 151 (partial checklist)

AFROTROPICAL AND MALAGASY: Wheeler, 1922: 727, 1005

ORIENTAL AND MALESIAN: Chapman & Capco, 1951: 9

AUSTRAL: Taylor & Brown, 1985: 5; Taylor, 1987a: 1; Taylor, 1987b: 1 (supplement to previous)

Regional and national faunas with keys
PALAEARCTIC

Mayr, 1855: 299 (Austria); Mayr, 1861: 25 (Europe); Forel, 1874: 19 (Switzerland); Saunders, 1880: 202 (Britain); André, 1882a: 125 (Europe & Algeria); Nasonov, 1889: 50 (Russia); Lameere, 1892: 62 (Belgium); Saunders, 1896: 18 (Britain); Ruzsky, 1905b: 99 (Russian Empire); Wasmann, 1906: 7 (Luxemburg); Emery, 1908a (Palaearctic); Bondroit, 1910: 480 (Belgium); Stitz, 1914: 54 (Central Europe); Donisthorpe, 1915f: 65 (Britain); Forel, 1915d: 1 (Switzerland); Emery, 1916a: 92 (Italy); Bondroit, 1918: 12 (France & Belgium); Kutter, 1920b: 132 (Switzerland); Soudek, 1922b: 17 (Czechoslovakia); Lomnicki, 1925a: 160 (Poland); Stärcke, 1926: 79 (Netherlands); Karavaiev, 1927d: 254 (Ukraine); Donisthorpe, 1927c: 66 (Britain); Arnol'di, 1933a: 596 (Russia); Menozzi, 1933b: 87 (Israel); Karavaiev, 1934: 48 (Ukraine); Stitz, 1939: 56 (Germany); Kratochvíl, 1941b: 69 (Central Europe); Novák & Sadil, 1941: 69 (Central Europe); Ceballos, 1943: 313 (Spain);Holgersen, 1942b: 3 (Northern Norway); Holgersen, 1943c: 166 and Holgersen, 1944a: 198 (Norway); Boven, 1947b: 168 (Belgium); Collingwood, 1958b: 69 (Britain); Somfai, 1959: 1 (Hungary); Boven, 1959: 1 (Netherlands); Collingwood, 1964b: 93 (Britain); Bernard, 1967a: 75 (Western Europe); Boven, 1970b: 7 (Netherlands); Tarbinsky, 1976: 14 (Kyrghyzstan); Bolton & Collingwood, 1975: 1 (Britain); Boven, 1977: 1 (Belgium); Kutter, 1977c: 19 (Switzerland); Brian, 1977: 33 (Britain); Arnol'di & Dlussky, 1978: 520 (former European U.S.S.R.); Collingwood, 1978: 65 (Iberian Peninsula); Collingwood, 1979: 28 (Fennoscandia & Denmark); Schembri & Collingwood, 1981: 417 (Malta); Verhaeghe et al., 1984: 105 (Belgium genera); Gösswald, 1985: 262 (Germany); Collingwood, 1985: 230 (Saudi Arabia); Nilsson & Douwes, 1987: 56 (Norway); Agosti & Collingwood, 1987b: 261 (Balkans); Casevitz-Weulersse, 1990b: 135 and Casevitz-Weulersse, 1990c: 415 (Corsica); Dlussky et al., 1990: 99 (Turkmenistan); Kupyanskaya, 1990a: 83 (Far Eastern Russia); Bolton, in Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 34 (Palaearctic genera key); Atanassov & Dlussky, 1992: 47 (Bulgaria); Arakelian, 1994: 1 (Armenia); Radchenko, 1994b: 95 (South Siberia); Seifert, 1994a: 1 (Germany, synopsis); Onoyama & Terayama, 1994: 1 (Japan bibliography); Bolton, 1994: 22, 42, 75, 153 (Dolichoderinae, Formicinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinae genera keys); Douwes, 1995: 83 (Sweden); Kupyanskaya, 1995: 327 (Far Eastern Russia); Wu & Wang, 1995a: 30 (China); Fontenla Rizo, 1995b: 16 (Cuba, tramp species key); Collingwood & Agosti, 1996: 300 (Saudi Arabia); Collingwood & Van Harten, 1994: 1 (Yemen); Seifert, 1996B: 106 (Central Europe); Skinner & Allen, 1996: 40 (Britain); Dlussky, 1997A: 616 (*Baltic Amber genera); Collingwood & Prince, 1998: 9 (Portugal); Czechowski et al., 2002: 133 (Poland); Aktaç & Radchenko, 2002: 53 (Turkey genera); Yoshimura & Onoyama, 2002B: 424 (Japan genera, males key); Imai et al., 2003: 8 (Japan); Radchenko, 2005B: 183 (North Korea); Seifert, 2007: 107 (North and Central Europe); Boer, 2010: 8 (Benelux); Lapeva-Gjonova et al., 2010: 1 (Bulgaria species catalogue); Csősz et al., 2011: 56 (Hungary species catalogue); Czechowski et al., 2012: 333 (Poland); Douwes et al., 2012: 1 (Sweden)

NEARCTIC

Provancher, 1883: 596 (Canada); Provancher, 1887: 225 (Canada); Cresson, 1887: 93 (U.S.A.); Wheeler, 1910a: 557 (North America genera); Wheeler, 1916r: 579 (U.S.A., Connecticut); Cole, 1942: 359 (U.S.A., Utah); Smith, 1943e: 276 (U.S.A. subfamilies & genera, males); Buren, 1944a: 278 (U.S.A., Iowa); Smith, 1947f: 524 (U.S.A. genera); Creighton, 1950a: 29 (North America); Gregg, 1963: 278 (U.S.A., Colorado); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1963: 149 (U.S.A., North Dakota); Francoeur, 1979a: 48 (Canada, Québec, introduction); Allred, 1982: 437 (U.S.A., Utah); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1986g: 16 (U.S.A., Nevada); MacKay et al., 1988: 81 (U.S.A., New Mexico); Cover, in Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 62 (Nearctic genera key); Mackay & MacKay, 2002: 16 (U.S.A., New Mexico); Dlussky & Rasnitsyn, 2003: 430 (*Eocene North American genera); Bolton, 1994: 25, 38, 48, 95, 160 (Dolichoderinae, Ecitoninae, Formicinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinae genera keys); Coovert, 2005: 1 (U.S.A., Ohio); Ward, 2005: 20 (U.S.A., California genera); Fisher & Cover, 2007: 1 (North American genera key)

NEOTROPICAL

Gallardo, 1915: 30 (Argentina genera); Menozzi & Russo, 1930: 169 (Dominican Republic); Smith, 1937: 822 (Puerto Rico); Kusnezov, 1956a: 7 (Argentina); Kusnezov, 1960b: 330 (West Patagonia); Snelling & Hunt, 1975: 63 (Chile); Kempf, 1978a: 33 (Neotropical subfamilies); Baroni Urbani, 1984: 73 (Neotropical genera); Mackay & MacKay, 1989: 1 (Mexico genera); Cover, in Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 69 (Neotropical genera key); Lattke, in Jaffe, 1993: 145 (Neotropical subfamilies & genera); Bolton, 1994: 26, 38, 49, 98, 162 (Dolichoderinae, Ecitoninae, Formicinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinae genera keys); Fernández et al., 1996: 353 (Neotropical subfamilies); Fernández & Ospina, 2003: 49 (Neotropical genera synopsis); Palacio & Fernández, 2003: 233 (Neotropical subfamilies and genera keys); Baccaro et al., 2015: (Brazil key to genera); Boudinot, 2019: 487 (Neotropical subfamilies and genera, males key); Fernández et al., 2019: 459 (Neotropical subfamilies and genera).

AFROTROPICAL AND MALAGASY

Forel, 1891c: 8 (Madagascar genera); Arnold, 1915: 6 (South Africa); Arnold, 1916: 159 (South Africa); Bolton, 1973a: 321 (West Africa subfamilies & genera); Bolton, in Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 39 (Afrotropical and Malagasy genera key); Bolton, 1994: 23, 44, 79, 155 (Dolichoderinae, Formicinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinae genera keys); Yoshimura & Fisher, 2007: 27 (Malagasy subfamilies, males key); Yoshimura & Fisher, 2009: 8 (Proceratiinae males); Yoshimura & Fisher, 2011: 7 (Dolichoderinae males); Yoshimura & Fisher, 2012: 11 (Amblyoponinae males); Fisher & Bolton, 2016: 60 (Afrotropical and Malagasy genera key, workers)

ORIENTAL AND MALESIAN

Forel, 1892k: 219 (India & Sri Lanka); Bingham, 1903: 1 (India, Sri Lanka & Burma); Wilson & Taylor, 1967b: 10 (Polynesia); Bolton, in Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 46 (Oriental and Indo-Australian genera key); Bolton, 1994: 23, 45, 84, 158 (Dolichoderinae, Formicinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinae genera keys); Wu & Wang, 1995a: 30 (China); Zhou, 2001A: 21 (China, Guangxi subfamilies); Clouse, 2007B: 190 (Micronesia); Framenau & Thomas, 2008: 52 (Christmas I.); Terayama, 2009: 81 (Taiwan); Eguchi et al., 2011: 7 (Vietnam subfamilies key); Pfeiffer et al., 2011: 32 (ants of Borneo, checklist); General & Alpert, 2012: 68 (Philippines genera key); Sarnat & Economo, 2012: 1 (Fiji); Yamane, 2013: 1 (Krakatau Islands, species keys)

AUSTRAL

Forel, 1905d: 353 (New Zealand); Brown, 1958h: 1 (New Zealand); Brown & Taylor, 1970: 958 (Australia subfamilies); Greenslade, 1979: 10 (South Australia subfamilies); Taylor, R.W., in Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 55 (Australia genera key); Taylor, 1991d: 987 (Australia subfamilies); Bolton, 1994: 24, 47, 91, 159 (Dolichoderinae, Formicinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinae genera keys); Shattuck, 1999: 21 (Australia subfamilies & genera); Andersen, 2000: 14 (northern Australia subfamilies & genera); Don, 2007: 39 (New Zealand); Heterick, 2009: 16, 28 (south-western Australia subfamilies & genera); Jennings et al., 2013: 20 (New Caledonia species checklist)

Citations

Extant: 17 valid subfamilies (10 synonyms, 20 unavailable), 39 valid tribes (80 synonyms, 1 unavailable), 337 valid genera (402 synonyms, 17 homonyms, 2 unidentifiable, 7 unavailable, 1 excluded from Formicidae, 4 obsolete combinations, 14 unavailable uncategorized)

Fossil: 5 valid subfamilies, 6 valid tribes (5 synonyms, 1 unavailable), 160 valid genera (18 synonyms, 5 homonyms, 2 unavailable, 9 excluded from Formicidae, 1 unavailable uncategorized)

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